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New publications on cross-cutting issues and NTDs.
October 2016
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Greetings from InfoNTD!
 
In this newsletter you will find a selection of news items and recent publications on cross-cutting issues in NTDs. Feel free to contact us with any questions or to receive the full text versions if a link to the full text is not included.


Kind regards,
 
Ilse Egers & Evelien Dijkkamp
InfoNTD Information officers

News

News from African Research Network for Neglected Tropical Diseases (ARNTD).
Since the launch of the World Health Organization (WHO) 2020 roadmap to eradicate NTDs and the signing of the London Declaration in 2012, several pharmaceutical companies, funding agencies, institutions, and other groups in North America and Europe have prioritized research and advocacy for NTD control and elimination. However, involvement of indigenous African entities has been limited, although over 85% of the global NTD burden is borne by the continent.
To address the absence of indigenous African entities at the global level, the African Research Network for Neglected Tropical Diseases (ARNTD) was formally created in 2013. The objectives of the ARNTD are: (1) to build a sustainable collaborative network comprised of NTD researchers, policy makers and implementers, including clinicians;(2) to promote the need for NTD research, control and eradication in Africa through advocacy and fund raising ;(3) to stimulate research and strengthen the capacity required in Africa and (4) to make information on NTDs and related research widely available in Africa, particularly within the health care sector.

Huffington Post
Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Best Buy in Global Health
4 October 2016
One of the lesser known success stories in global health is about the progress we have made over the past decade in controlling and eliminating neglected tropical diseases or NTDs. And yes, the term “neglected” is there for a reason: because these diseases affect the poorest of the poor and have endured largely due to indifference and neglect.
Read more

News from the WHO
Neglected tropical diseases: unprecedented 979 million people treated in 2015.
30 September 2016 ¦ Geneva
The World Health Organization (WHO) has released data for 2015 showing that a record 979 million people benefited from large-scale treatment of at least one neglected tropical disease in 2015 alone. This unprecedented achievement may be the first time that so many people have been treated globally as part of a public health intervention in one single year.

New publications


Somalia: A nation at the crossroads of extreme poverty, conflict, and neglected tropical diseases.
Jaffer A, Hotez PJ. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016; 10(9):e0004670.
Abstract NTDs and other tropical infections remain widespread in the extremely fragile nation-state Somalia. Until there are significant improvements in Somalia’s chronic complex emergency status, it is unlikely that this situation will experience substantial changes anytime soon. Learning from the active role the government of post-conflict Rwanda took to achieve remarkable gains in health, there is room for the leadership of Somalia and possibly Somaliland and Puntland to one day rebuild its health systems and infrastructure.
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Burden assessment of podoconiosis in Wayu Tuka woreda, east Wollega zone, western Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study.
Bekele K, Deribe K, Amberbir T, et al. BMJ Open. 2016; 6(9):e012308.
Abstract A relatively high prevalence of podoconiosis, frequent ALA episodes and considerable decreases in daily activities were identified in this district. Footwear use and daily foot hygiene were associated with decreased odds of ALA. We recommend prevention and morbidity management interventions to address this developmental challenge.
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Detecting and staging podoconiosis cases in North West Cameroon: positive predictive value of clinical screening of patients by community health workers and researchers.
Wanji S, Kengne-Ouafo JA, Datchoua-Poutcheu FR, et al. BMC Public Health. 2016; 16:997.
Abstract Podoconiosis being a stigmatized disease, the use of CHIs who are familiar to the community appears appropriate for identifying cases through clinical diagnosis. However, to improve their effectiveness and accuracy, more training, supervision and support are required. More emphasis must be given in identifying early clinical stages and in health districts with relatively lower positive predicted values (PPVs).
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Dual perspectives on stigma: reports of experienced and enacted stigma by those affected and unaffected by podoconiosis.
Ayode D, Tora A, Farrell D, et al. Journal of Public Health Research. 2016; 5.
Abstract If stigma reduction interventions are to be successful, culturally tailored, gender inclusive and innovative health education programs are required, directed at the general community as well as individuals affected by inherited diseases.
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Experiences and perspectives of community health workers from implementing treatment for schistosomiasis using the community directed intervention strategy in an informal settlement in Kisumu City, western Kenya.
Odhiambo GO, Musuva RM, Odiere MR, et al. BMC Public Health. 2016; 16:986.
Abstract Findings from this study support the feasibility of using CDI for implementing MDA for schistosomiasis in informal settlements of urban areas. Extensive community sensitization and provision of incentives may help address the aforementioned challenges associated with implementing MDA using the CDI strategy. Opportunities highlighted in this study may be of value to other programmes that may be considering the adoption of the CDI strategy for rolling out interventions in the urban setting.
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The role of nurses and community health workers in confronting neglected tropical diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review.
Corley AG, Thornton CP, Glass NE. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016; 10(9):e0004914.
Abstract Successful disease control requires deep and meaningful engagement with local communities. Expanding the role of nurses and community health workers will be required if sub-Saharan African countries are to meet neglected tropical disease treatment goals and eliminate the possibility future disease transmission. Horizontal or multidisease control programs can create complimentary interactions between their different control activities as well as reduce costs through improved program efficiencies-benefits that vertical programs are not able to attain.
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Neglected tropical diseases: progress towards addressing the chronic pandemic.
Molyneux DH, Savioli L, Engels D. Lancet. 2016.
Abstract The Lancet published a review of the progress made in addressing, as lead author David Molyneux calls it, the chronic pandemic of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The authors looked at the progress made in terms of the donated medicines which are used in mass drug administration (MDA) interventions, which represent something in the region of one billion treatments a year. They also highlighted some of the challenges that need to be addressed to ensure the massive impact of NTDs is fully mitigated.
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Experiences of pain and expectations for its treatment among former Buruli ulcer patients.
Woolley RJ, Velink A, Phillips RO, et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2016.
Abstract The objective of this study was to explore patients' experiences of pain and their expectations for its treatment. Patients wanted to receive pain relief; however, many were unable to name a medication. Nonpharmaceutical options were cited as being an alternative. Many BU patients experience pain; however, former patients and community members alike appear to have a limited knowledge about available pain relief. A low-cost alternative to medication may be the use of nonpharmaceutical means for pain relief. Routine pain assessment may reduce patients' fear and unwillingness to express pain. Awareness of such issues will be valuable when implementing a BU pain relief guideline.
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Willingness to pay for footwear, and associated factors related to podoconiosis in northern Ethiopia.
Tsegay G, Tamiru A, Amberbir T, et al. Int Health. 2016; 8(5):345-53.
Abstract There is substantial willingness to pay for footwear. The expressed willingness to pay indicates demand for footwear in the community, suggesting an opportunity for shoe companies. There are still a substantial proportion of individuals not willing to pay for footwear. This requires intensified public education and social transformation to bring about change in behavior towards footwear use if elimination of podoconiosis within our generation is to be achieved.
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Lymphatic filariasis: knowledge, attitude and practices among inhabitants of an irrigation project community, North Central Nigeria.
Amaechi EC, Ohaeri CC, Ukpai OM, et al. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2016; 6(9).
Abstract Many of the participants had a poor knowledge of lymphatic filariasis, the mode of transmission and symptoms of the disease. For proper understanding of lymphatic filariasis in the community, there is need for effective and realistic health education campaigns targeted at the grassroots.
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Water, sanitation and hygiene related risk factors for soil-transmitted helminth and Giardia duodenalis infections in rural communities in Timor-Leste.
Campbell SJ, Nery SV, D'Este CA, et al. Int. J. Parasitol. 2016.
Abstract In this first known assessment of community-based prevalence and associated risk factors in Timor-Leste, STH infections were highly prevalent, indicating a need for STH control. Few associations with WASH were evident, despite WASH being generally poor. In our RCT we will investigate implications of improving WASH on STH infection in impoverished communities.
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The importance of socio-economic versus environmental risk factors for reported dengue cases in Java, Indonesia.
Wijayanti SPM, Porphyre T, Chase-Topping M, et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016; 10(9):e0004964.
Abstract Data suggest that dengue infections are triggered by indoor transmission events linked to socio-economic factors (employment type, economic status). Preventive measures in this area should therefore target also specific environments such as schools and work areas to attempt and reduce dengue burden in this community. This study can advise preventive measures in areas with similar patterns of reported dengue cases and environment.
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Management of HIV infected patients with active Buruli ulcer in tropical regions, a new therapeutic challenge: A review.
Kassi K, Serge E, Jean-Marie K. Journal of Dermatological Research. 2016; 1:27-31.
Abstract We conducted a literature review based on current scientific articles and practice experiences to summarize information and guidance principles to make these following suggestions to health care practitioner: Before commencing BU treatment and before starting ART, all HIV/MU co-infected patients should be actively screened for tuberculosis. BU treatment should be commenced before commencing ART and provided for 8 weeks duration. And for the common sense, based on TB management experience HIV, TB and BU control programs should work together in a cooperative framework, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions where the prevalence of these 3 diseases seems high. As, HIV/BU co-infection is increasing in tropical regions, more study should be initiated to determine the cumulative effect of IRIS and paradoxical reactions in BU/HIV co-infected patients on ART and anti-mycobacterial agents, in order to set up recommendation as it was done in TB/HIV co-infection for proper management.
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Disability
Comparison of attitudes toward disability and people with disability among caregivers, the public, and people with disability: findings from a cross-sectional survey.
Zheng Q, Tian Q, Hao C, et al. BMC Public Health. 2016; 16(1):1024.
Abstract This study was to investigate and compare the attitudes of PWD, caregivers, and the public toward disability and PWD in China, to identify discrepancies in attitude among the three groups and to examine potential influencing factors of attitude within each group.
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Conceptualisation of community-based rehabilitation in Southern Africa: A systematic review.
M'kumbuzi VRP, Myezwa H. South African Journal of Physiotherapy. 2016; 72(1):1-8.
Abstract The article sought to determine how CBR is conceptualised and understood in the literature from Southern Africa. Interest is centered on to what extent the literature could inform policy makers and practitioners in the region. Conclusion: in isolated cases, the literature is aligned to components of the CBR matrix. However, consistent with previous criticism of CBR, the literature is meagre, as is the evidence to inform policy makers and practitioners in Southern Africa.
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Promoting good policy for leadership and governance of health related rehabilitation: a realist synthesis.
McVeigh J, MacLachlan M, Gilmore B, et al. Global Health. 2016; 12(1):1-18.
Abstract Alongside national policymakers, our policy recommendations are relevant for several stakeholders, including service providers and service-users. This research aims to provide broad policy recommendations, rather than a strict formula, in acknowledgement of contextual diversity and complexity. Accordingly, our study proposes general principles regarding optimal policy related governance of health related rehabilitation in less resourced settings, which may be valuable across diverse health systems and contexts.
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Community-based rehabilitation for people with disabilities.
Blanchett K, Iemmi V, Kuper H. 2016. Report.
Abstract People with disabilities are often excluded from education, health, employment and other aspects of daily life, and are generally poorer. It is therefore widely argued that the Millennium Development Goals and the post-2015 targets cannot be achieved without integrating disability issues into the agenda. We conducted a systematic search for evidence on the effects of community-based rehabilitation (CBR) on health, education, livelihoods, social and empowerment outcomes.
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Wound care
Manuka honey in wound management: greater than the sum of its parts?
White R. Journal of Wound Care. 2016; 25:539-543.
Abstract The purpose of this brief review is to summarize the ongoing chemical, biochemical and microbiological research and to correlate it with clinical outcomes. The purpose being to present the enquiring clinician with an evidence summary with which clinical choices may be made. While much of the early research was into generic honeys, one particular source, manuka, appears especially effective, and as such this has been the focus of recent studies.
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Depressive symptoms in patients with wounds: A cross sectional study.
Zhou K, Jia P. Wound Repair and Regeneration. 2016
Abstract Depression slows wound healing in patients with chronic wounds. The prevalence of depressive symptoms differs in the literature and the current understandings of factors related to depression in patients with wounds have been limited. To investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the associated factors in patients with wounds, we performed this retrospective study in which depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item (PHQ-9).
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An RCT to determine an effective skin regime aimed at improving skin barrier function and quality of life in those with podoconiosis in Ethiopia.
Brooks J. 2016. Thesis
Abstract The aim of this randomised control trial (RCT) was to evaluate the effectiveness of a low-cost evidence-based skin care intervention to improve the SBF in the legs/feet and enhance disease related quality of life. The study indicates the very positive effect on skin barrier function (SBF) of adding 2% glycerine and less disinfectant to the current treatment. This finding offers a significant contribution to the body of knowledge on the management of the disease. The addition of 2% glycerine to treatment regimens may also have positive effects on other skin diseases with compromised SBF.
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Events
COR-NTD 2016
The annual meeting for the Coalition for Operational Research on Neglected Tropical Diseases (COR-NTD) will take place on November 10-11, prior to the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) Meeting in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
 The goal of the COR-NTD meeting is to strengthen the community of researchers, program implementers and their supporters to address knowledge gaps in a coordinated way, thus informing the agenda of future research and facilitating the global efforts of the World Health Organization and endemic countries to overcome NTDs.

ISNTD Water 2016
ISNTD Water 2016 will bring together the main stakeholders, researchers, NGOs and policy makers involved in the development of safe water, sanitation infrastructure and hygiene programmes for improved public health and reduced burden of disease by NTDs. Takes place November 1st 2016 at the Institute of Child Health in London.
Copyright © 2016 Netherlands Leprosy Relief, All rights reserved.


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